Projection is relatively recent in the history of human speech. Before the invention of recording, situations where one spoke to an absent interlocutor were rather rare: prayer or invocation, theater or poetry, madness. Today, forms of speech containing projection are very present in our lives, whether in television, radio, recorded announcements, vocal servers, voicemail messages, or online videos.
Without an interlocutor, however, a speaker relies on their own idea of who they are speaking to, giving their speech the particular character of a voice spoken in emptiness. Speech that is generically addressed, paced by default to suit everyone , all types of interlocutor, can be heard every day.
This is speech whose neutrality has been carefully thought out. It is the speech of vocal servers , recorded announcements in the subway, airport announcements , or rituals like auctions , for example. It is also the speech of television newsreaders , which must be able to be received by every category of viewer. These greetings are standardized according to how the speaker designs their panel of listeners, and how they choose to create a more or less distant relationship with them. This reading of a Serge Gainsbourg song shows another way of searching for a certain form of address to all.
More specifically, we can hear speakers constantly move from a present-concrete form of address to a projected-abstract form of address. This last case, excerpted from a hypnosis recording , is interesting in that the desire to create speech that works for any listener does not imply the elaboration of a neutral form as it does in previous examples but, on the contrary, a stylized form so strange that it corresponds to no predefined relationship and can thus be suited to anybody.
The process of projection is particularly interesting when the speaker addresses a given category of people: by imagining idealized members of these categories, the speaker reveals which preconceived ideas they may have about them. This can apply to the idea of a child , a potential buyer of an exceptional instrument, a fan , a possible adversary , a john , a viewer or even a solitary radio listener. This is also the case with manuals or tutorials: the speaker addresses themselves to a panel of home gymnastics or zouk enthusiasts of varying sizes; to listeners wanting to learn a John Lennon song or how to speak English with a Russian accent.
One even speaks in a very similar manner to the owner of a plant, or to the plant itself. In the same way, this excerpt from a Sylvie Joly sketch imagines a scene with an annoying interlocutor. Lastly, prayer is a perfect example of projected speech and, moreover, develops a relationship that is completely fantasized for some but very intimate and real for others.
When projection takes shape around an absent interlocutor that we know well, what is used in the resulting discourse is the memory of the relationship we have, or dream of having, with said person: projection then shows us the essence of this relationship, at least according to how the speaker projects it.
Such is the case in this tape from a woman to her mother see also Tu es mon autre. But this process can also be found in non-artistic situations: projection is what allows a speaker to take on an identity that suits them without the risk of being put in their place. Ways in which speech is organized, cut up, or articulated. In a given context, punctuation refers to the group of occurrences by which speech reveals its syntax, distributes its semantic effects, and allows its recipients to participate or not in what is being said.
Punctuation Ways in which speech is organized, cut up, or articulated. Written sentences use signs to let readers know about cuts, changes in level, or rhythms that correspond to an ideal syntactic organization of speech.
However, outside of reading, we do not speak using sentences. What we know about sentences is a resource that allows us to construct what we. Oral discourse also contains hints of punctuation, taking part as it does in socio-cultural customs and practices. This entry on brings together a range of such practices that involve organizing and carving the flow of interactive speech into segments. In his sketch comedy show, Michel Leeb uses this analogy between sentence punctuation and narrative production as a comedic resource see also Silence.
On the other hand, when a doctor dictates a diagnosis , they utter punctuation signs in a much less pronounced way. A first example can be seen when using lexical elements. Collection Affinity.
Two-years-old children learning a G. Hopkins poem, personal recording by Stacy Doris, Excerpt of the film Biquefarre by Georges Rouquier, Conversation with friends, excerpt of a personal recording by Nicolas Rollet, Raekwon, Ghostface Killah, excerpt of the album Striving for Perfection , Scene from a masturbation session shared via webcam, XTube, Scene from the metro, excerpt of a personal recording posted on Audioboo, Hallway conversation, personal recording by Nicolas Rollet, Excerpt of a Brazilian verbal joust, video posted on YouTube, s. Conversation with friends, excerpt of a personal recording by Esther Salmona, Scene from Paris at night, personal recording, Excerpt of a language class, YouTube video, Sage Francis, Apathy, excerpt of the mixtape Still Sick Urine Trouble, Conversation between two 2-year-old children, recording by Stacy Doris, Orosko, excerpt of a message posted on YouTube, Dialogue between a father and son, video posted on YouTube, Scene from a sermon, YouTube, David Hogan and his interpreter, excerpt of a sermon in Germany, Crowd before a show, recording by Joris Lacoste, Scene from a rehearsal, excerpt of the show Star Academy , TF1, Affinity in absentia Affinity in absentia takes place when speaker B is absent but still identifiable.
Affinity in praesentia Affinity in praesentia takes place when A and B are taking part in the same speech act—in which case contamination can be seen in action. Hagin, excerpt from a preach, Michel Thomas, method for learning German, s. Altercation in a plane, video posted on YouTube, Monologue of a youtuber in her car, Video letter posted on YouTube, Philippe and Cooky, excerpt of a ventriloquist comedy sketch, unknown source. Date unknown.
Excerpt from an oboe class, personal recording, Excerpt of a cooking show, video posted on YouTube, Alejandro Jodorowsky, excerpt of a demonstration, YouTube, Gouy Gui, excerpt of a YouTube video, Vietnamese pronunciation exercise, video posted on YouTube, unknown date. Catholic liturgy, excerpt of the show La Messe , France Culture, Excerpt of a shooting lesson, unknown source.
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Triumph at the Scala of Milan, 90s. Excerpt of a sermon in Kinshasa, recording by Manuel Coursin, Fabulous Trobadors, excerpt of the recording Era pas de faire , Baby dialogue, YouTube video, Scene from a classroom, personal recording by Laurie Bellanca, Excerpt of a recital in class, unknown source.
Briefing before a raid, s. Video about creating a declaration of love, YouTube, Excerpt of figure skating television commentary, Excerpt of a meeting held during Occupy Wall Street, Excerpt of a game of cards, Italy, Scene of someone being arrested, field recording posted on Soundcloud, CB radio exchanges between American truck drivers, Protest, personal recording by Jeanne Robet, Protest, excerpt of a YouTube video, Excerpt of a game of WarCraft 3, Scene from a safari, excerpt of a YouTube video, Excerpt of a dinner with friends, personal recording, Chant during a protest in Athens, personal recording, Countdown in a classroom, video posted on YouTube, Mathilde Monnier and La Ribot, excerpt of the show Gustavia , Wrestling match, excerpt of the show Sur les docks , France Culture, Excerpt of the show Sur les Docks , France Culture, Excerpt of the television gameshow Jeopardy , Unison The most elementary form of chorality is certainly unison, where several individuals say the same thing at the same time.
Distributed chorality Chorality can obviously take more subtle forms than unison. Emerging chorality These forms of chorality are built on the present moment of speech: several people do the same thing together, each in their own way, while pushing what is being said in a shared direction, that is to say, while sharing an activity.
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Portuguese pronunciation exercise, personal recording, Interview with cyclists, excerpt of a television show, s. Morphological compression Morphological compression takes place when words or phrases are literally abridged. Syntactic compression Another way of compressing discourse is to trim the very structure of what is being spoken: removing articles, pronouns, prepositions, even entire swaths of an utterance. Rhetorical compression Other possible examples of compression, albeit at a different scale, are processes where a word, sound, or phrase replace entire swaths of discourse.
Raimu, excerpt of the film La Femme du boulanger by Marcel Pagnol, Excerpt of the television gameshow La ruleta de la suerte , Spanish television, Altercation in a family shelter, Holland, Excerpt of a street show, personal recording, Molly Roth, excerpt of the record Plant Talk, Daniel Cohn-Bendit, excerpt of an appearance at the European Parliament, Jane Birkin, excerpt of the live album Arabesques , Scene from a market, excerpt of a recording by Manuel Coursin, Jacques Chirac, excerpt of the presidential inauguration speech, Scene from the metro, personal recording by Nicolas Rollet, Dominique de Villepin, excerpt of a speech at the French National Assembly, Woman appealing to fellow passengers in the metro, Praha, Robert Badinter, address to the National Assembly, Francis Lalanne, excerpt of the show Avis de recherche , TF1, Distribution The most systematic example of distributed address can be seen in this list of thanks taken from a Jane Birkin concert.
Alternation Perhaps the most spectacular instances of focalization are those where a speaker shifts their focus between two recipients with very different statuses: like when this man speaks in very contrasting terms to a journalist for France Culture and to his dog; or when this voice suddenly focuses on a plant; when this truck farmer moves from an aside back to the general public; when this singing coach moves between addressing her student and an imaginary public, or even in this famous excerpt of La Femme du boulanger , where the character played by Raimu transposes his speech full of reproaches to his wife into one aimed at the female cat that has just walked into the kitchen.
Multi-focalization But focalization is even more remarkable when it happens with three, four, even five different forms of address. Barbara, concert excerpt, unknown date. Jean-Claude Van Damme, extrait d'un entretien, Christophe Tarkos, Le petit bidon , Centre Pompidou, Gilles Deleuze, excerpt of a lecture on Leibniz, Michel Braud, excerpt of a thesis defense in the performing arts, Scene from a police station, excerpt of the film Faits divers , Raymond Depardon, Telephone conversation, recording by Nicolas Rollet, Sophie Marceau, speech before the presentation of a Palme d'or, Festival de Cannes, Excerpt of a show on RTL, Jonathan Krohn, excerpt of an appearance at the Conservative Action Conference, The fold as unrestrained drifting of the mind Freed from the worries of having to maintain a steady discursive thread, folded speech can lose itself in an unrestrained drift, tacking a conversation miles from its original subject without appearing problematic in doing so.
Victoria Azarenka and Caroline Wozniacki, excerpt of a tennis semi-final, Countdown to the launch of an H-2A rocket, Japan, Excerpt of a training session, YouTube video, Excerpt of a television news report, s. Instructions from a navigation system, personal recording, Excerpt from a boxing training for children, YouTube, Video of a birth posted on YouTube, Renata Sopek, excerpt of a gymnastics lesson on Croatian television, Reaction video posted on YouTube, Barack Obama, excerpt of the presidential inauguration ceremony, Soccer commentary excerpt, s.
Telephone conversation, excerpt of a personal recording by Nicolas Rollet, Excerpt of the show Pictionary featured on Une case en moins , NoLife, Monologue of a man sitting on his couch, Youtube video, Based on these typical cases, we can distinguish between several other cases that make up the collection: Explanation Occurs when A and B are mixed up—that is, when a speaker A describes an action B they are carrying out to a third person C.
Instructions Occur when B and C are mixed up, that is to say when the action described is carried out by the person speaker A is addressing: thus, in this recording , an owner A gives instructions B to his dog, who is the recipient C of his speech. Observation When A and C are mixed up, that is to say when a speaker A describes and comments on an action B they are witnessing for themselves C. Self-commentary When A, B, and C are mixed up, that is to say when a speaker A comments on an action B they are carrying out for themselves C.
Excerpt of an advertisement for an anti-depressant, SNCF announcement, s. Security instructions before takeoff, recording by Nicolas Rollet, David, excerpt of the compilation Musics in the Margin—Musiques en marge , Man reading an obituary, recording by Gauthier Tassart, Chivalrous song, excerpt of the documentary Moro no Brasil by Mika Kaurismaki, Excerpt of a video for learning how to count, Russia, Recitation of a mantra, excerpt of a YouTube video, unknown date.
Dialogue between of a reality tv star and a beggar, Porto, Message posted on YouTube, Excerpt of a yoga class, Curse by an Itako shaman, Reciting of a poem by a child at official inauguration, Poland, Hasan bin Abdullah Al Awadh, ritual reading of the Coran, Colette Magny, excerpt of the recording Transit , Leon Trotsky, excerpt of a filmed message, unknown date. Circus advertisement, personal recording, Michael Buffer, introduction to the fight of George Foreman vs.
Esthetics and Literary Influence. After Descartes. Collectanea, Commemorations, Exhibitions: Checklist. Back Matter Pages About this book Introduction This book offers a new type of working tool for Cartesian studies. It presents the literature of the last years in alphabetical order Part Two , combined with a systematic analytical survey Part One and a detailed topical index to the whole Part Three.
Une intuition de Charles Journet? Dupuis, dans Revue thomiste, oct. Les arguments de convenance sont-ils toujours fragiles? Ut unum sint!